Orion HST

Cloudy background information


Links to get the version of Cloudy we will use in the workshop are on the homework page.

The main Cloudy web site is http://trac.nublado.org/ It has instructions for how to download the code and its data, and how to build a working executable.

The code lives in a subversion source code control system repository. svn is described here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subversion_(software)

You can view the Cloudy repository here:

You can download a copy of Cloudy using svn at the command prompt:
svn checkout svn://svn.nublado.org/cloudy/VersionYouWant

The user's web site is
is a place where users can ask questions.

About 200 papers cite Cloudy's documentation each year. There are two main references:

The C13 release is described by Ferland et al. (2013). This link produces a rank-ordered list of the most highly cited ADS papers published in 2013. We are usually around the 20-25th most cited paper on this list, and one of the few theory codes.

Older versions of the code are described in Ferland et al. (1998), and this link produces a rank-ordered list of the most highly cited ADS papers published in 1998. We are often in the top ten.

Other references

Osterbrock & Ferland 2006, Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei, 2nd edition (AGN3). This is a graduate text that covers emission lines in nebulae and Active Nuclei.

Ferland 2003, ARA&A, 41, 517, Quantitative Spectroscopy of Photoionized Clouds A review os the status of the field and the outstanding problems.

Hamann & Ferland, ARA&A, 37, 487, Elemental Abundances in Quasistellar Objects: Star Formation and Galactic Nuclear Evolution at High Redshifts. This applies Cloudy to measure abundances from the strong lines seen in Active Nuclei and finds a luminosity - metallicity correlation.

Ferland 2001, PASP, 113, 41, Physical Conditions in the Orion H II Region A review of the current status and problems for this, the brightest and nearest H II region.